The Handbook for New Ostomy Patients was written and produced by Debra Rooney with funding by the Vancouver United Ostomy Association of Vancouver, BC Canada
Types of ostomies
Glossary Use this glossary to help define some of the medical terms found in this web site
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Sex and the male Ostomate Fact Sheet
Sex and the Female Ostomate Fact Sheet
Sex and the single Ostomate Fact Sheet
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Canadian Association for Enterostomal Therapy (CAET)
An Ostomy is a surgical procedure creating an opening in the body for the discharge of body wastes.
Certain diseases of the bowel or urinary tract involve removing all or part of the intestine or bladder.
This creates a need for an alternate way for feces or urine to leave the body. An opening is surgically
created in the abdomen for body wastes to pass through. The surgical procedure is called an ostomy.
The opening that is created at the end of the bowel or ureter is called a stoma, which is pulled through
the abdominal wall.
Types of Ostomies include Colostomy: (colon + ostomy); Ileostomy: (ileum + ostomy); Continent
Ileostomy: Continent Urostomy: Ileoanal Reservoir
Colostomy: (colon + ostomy) a surgical procedure where part of the large intestine or colon is
removed with the result that the rectum is no longer functional. An opening is surgically created on the
abdomen and the end portion of the colon is brought through the opening to the surface of the
abdomen. The part of the colon or bowel that protrudes is called a stoma. A person with a colostomy
has no control over bowel movements, so a pouch will need to be worn over the stoma to collect the
stool. The stoma may be located on the right side of the abdomen (ascending colostomy), in the center
(transverse colostomy), or on the left side (descending or sigmoid colostomy). to collect stool. A
temporary colostomy is created in cases where the diseased portion of the colon is allowed to heal
while the functional colon continues to work. Sometimes, this is called a "double barrel" ostomy.
Ileostomy: (ileum + ostomy) a surgical procedure where the entire large intestine is removed and the
end of the small intestine or ileum is brought through an opening to the surface of the abdomen. The
part of the ileum that protrudes is called a stoma. A person with an ileostomy has no control over
bowel movements, so a pouch will need to be worn over the stoma to collect the stool. If the rectum is
also diseased, it is removed. Sometimes, however, the rectum is left in place in the event that a re-
connection is planned or possible in the future (see below: Ileonanal Reservoir).
Urostomy or Ileal Conduit or Urinary Diversion: Three names for the same thing! This surgical
procedure involves the removal of the diseased bladder and the formation of a stoma to divert urine
into an external pouch worn on the surface of the abdomen. The surgeon takes a six to eight inch piece
of the small intestine (ileum) to form a conduit for the urine. The ileum, where the short length was
removed, is then reconnected. The short length of the small intestine is now reassigned to act as a
"tube" or conduit to carry urine instead of feces. One end of this conduit is sewn closed and the other
end is brought out to the surface of the abdomen to form the stoma. The ureters from the kidneys are
then grafted onto this conduit to carry the urine to the outside of the body and into the pouch.
Other Types of Ostomies:
Continent Ileostomy: A surgical procedure where the patient has lost the entire large intestine or
colon and the end of the small intestine is surgically fashioned into an "internal pouch" where stool
collects. This internal pouch, besides being connected to the small intestine, is also connected to the
surface of the abdomen where surgically created 'one-way' valves on the stoma prevent the stool from
leaving the pouch. Therefore, in order to empty the pouch, one must use a special plastic tube or
catheter several times a day to drain the pouch. No external pouch is required but a small absorbent
pad or cover is needed over the stoma.
Continent Urostomy: As in the case of a continent ileostomy, a portion of the small intestine is cut out and fashioned into an internal pouch to replace the bladder which has already been removed. This pouch is now the new bladder. The ureters from the kidneys are grafted onto this new bladder that will store urine. Special one-way valves are surgically constructed
at the end of the internal pouch to prevent urine from leaking out. As in the case of a continent
ileostomy, a special catheter is used several times a day to empty the urine. No external pouch is
required but a small absorbent pad or cover is needed over the stoma.
Ileoanal Reservoir: This surgical procedure involves the formation of a large internal pouch (similar to a continent ileostomy) except that the end of the pouch is surgically re-connected to the rectum to allow for normal controlled bowel movements. The frequency of bowel movements is greatly increased but no external pouches or absorbent pads are necessary.